"A common view of education is that its main aim is
the acquisition of knowledge through the learning of
facts. After all, for the most part that is how we mea-
sure the effectiveness of education, testing students’
knowledge. But it’s simply not right. It might be the
aim of certain courses, but it’s definitely not the pur-
pose of education. The goal of education is to improve
minds, enabling them to acquire abilities and skills to
do things they could not do previously. As William
Butler Yeats put it, “Education is not about filling a
bucket; it’s lighting a fire.” Books and CDs store many
more facts than people do—they are excellent buck-
ets—but that doesn’t make them smart. Being smart is
about doing, not knowing."
"The top-down nature of performance estimates can have important behavioral consequences. […]Starting in adolescence, women tend to rate themselves as less scientifically talented than men rate themselves. Because of this, women might start to think they are doing less well on specific scientific tasks than men tend to think, even when there is no gender difference in performance. Thinking they are doing less well, women might become less enthusiastic about participating in scientific activities"
— David Dunning, Kerri Johnson, Joyce Ehrlinger and Justin Kruger